Plant growth regulators affect biomass, protein, carotenoid, and lipid production in Botryococcus braunii
Authors: Du, Huanmin; Ren, Jiali; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Haonan; Wang, Kang; Lin, Bin; Zheng, Shanmin; Zhao, Changyu; Meng, Chunxiao; Gao, Zhengquan
Botryococcus braunii, a green alga that can produce a variety of secondary metabolites such as lipids, protein, and carotenoid, is considered a potential biodiesel feedstock for industrial commercialization. This study investigated the effects of exogenous plant growth regulators (PGRs) (6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), abscisic acid (ABA), 2,4-epibrassinolide (EBR), ethephon (ETH), gibberellic acid (GA(3)), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), salicylic acid (SA), and spermidine (SPD)) on the growth, protein, carotenoid and lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid composition, and expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Botryococcus braunii B12 (B. braunii B12). NAA was the most effective inducer of microalgae biomass, which increased approximately 2-fold compared with that of the control. The maximum lipid accumulation and content were found under 15 mg/L GA(3) treatment; the lipid accumulation reached 0.27 g/L, and the lipid content reached 60.25%. Moreover, the soluble protein content reached 28.49 mg/g DCW under 0.05 mg/L 6-BA treatment. Similarly, the highest carotenoid content (108.70 mg/g DCW) was observed under 50 mg/L NAA treatment. Furthermore, all PGRs altered the fatty acid composition of B. braunii B12, particularly the C16-C18 content (%). Finally, the effects of eight PGRs on seven lipid-related genes (acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP), biotin carboxylase (BC), omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD), acyl carrier protein thioesterase (FATA), 3-ketoacyl carrier protein synthase gene (KAS), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (MCTK), and stearoyl-ACP-desaturase (SAD)) were studied by qRT-PCR, and an apparent correlation was found between gene expression and lipid synthesis in the microalgae.
Biofunctional Polymer Coated Au Nanoparticles Prepared via RAFT-Assisted Encapsulating Emulsion Polymerization and Click Chemistry
Authors: Pereira, Sonia O.; Trindade, Tito; Barros-Timmons, Ana
The use of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-assisted encapsulating emulsion polymerization (REEP) has been explored to prepare diverse types of colloidal stable core-shell nanostructures. A major field of application of such nanoparticles is in emergent nanomedicines, which require effective biofunctionalization strategies, in which their response to bioanalytes needs to be firstly assessed. Herein, functional core-shell nanostructures were prepared via REEP and click chemistry. Thus, following the REEP strategy, colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs,d= 15 nm) were coated with a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA) macroRAFT agent containing an azide (N3) group to affordN3-macroRAFT@Au NPs. Then, chain extension was carried out from the NPs surface via REEP, at 44 degrees C under monomer-starved conditions, to yieldN3-copolymer@Au NPs-core-shell type structures. Biotin was anchored toN3-copolymer@Au NPs via click chemistry using an alkynated biotin to yield biofunctionalized Au nanostructures. The response of the ensuing biotin-copolymer@Au NPs to avidin was followed by visible spectroscopy, and the copolymer-biotin-avidin interaction was further studied using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. This research demonstrates that REEP is a promising strategy to prepare robust functional core-shell plasmonic nanostructures for bioapplications. Although the presence of azide moieties requires the use of low polymerization temperature, the overall strategy allows the preparation of tailor-made plasmonic nanostructures for applications of biosensors based on responsive polymer shells, such as pH, temperature, and photoluminescence quenching. Moreover, the interaction of biotin with avidin proved to be time dependent.