Insights Into the Role of Vitamin D as a Biomarker in Stem Cell Transplantation
FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Soto, Jose Ros; Anthias, Chloe; Madrigal, Alejandro; Snowden, John A.
Vitamin D was discovered 100 years ago and since then multiple studies have consistently proved its effect on bone health and mineral metabolism. Further research has also explored its so-called "non-classical" biological effects, encompassing immune regulation and control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D downregulates pro-inflammatory immune cells and subsequently their cytokine production, while enhancing the anti-inflammatory subsets, thus mediating inflammation and fostering a more tolerogenic environment. Its biological action is exerted through the vitamin D receptor, a nuclear receptor that mediates gene transcription and is expressed in most cells from the innate and adaptive immunity. Owing to its immune-modulatory properties, its role in cancer pathophysiology, hematology disorders and stem cell transplantation has also been investigated. Vitamin D deficiency causes immune imbalance and cytokine dysregulation, contributing to some autoimmune diseases. In the hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting this could lead to complications such as acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, ultimately impacting transplant outcomes. Other factors have also been linked to this, including specific polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor in both stem cell donors and recipients. Nevertheless, studies thus far have shown conflicting results and the use of vitamin D or its receptor as biomarkers has not been validated yet, therefore there are no evidence-based consensus guidelines to guide clinicians in their day-to-day practice. To gain more insight in this topic, we have reviewed the existent literature and gathered the current evidence. This is an overview of the role of serum vitamin D and its receptor as biomarkers for clinical outcomes in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Further prospective studies with larger cohorts are warranted to validate the viability of using serum vitamin D, and its receptor, as biomarkers in potential stem cell donors and patients, to identify those at risk of post-transplant complications and enable early therapeutic interventions.
The Effects of 6-Month Vitamin D Supplementation during the Non-Surgical Treatment of Periodontitis in Vitamin-D-Deficient Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study
Authors: Peric, Marina; Maiter, Dominique; Cavalier, Etienne; Lasserre, Jerome F.; Toma, Selena
Background: This study assessed the effects of weekly vitamin D (VD) supplementation on clinical and biological parameters after scaling and root planning (SRP) in the treatment of periodontitis and served to validate the VD dosage regimen. Methods: It was a monocentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 6 months follow-up. Healthy Caucasian periodontitis patients presenting serum 25(OH) vitamin D3 below 30 ng/mL were randomly allocated to test group (SRP + VD 25,000 international units (IU)/week) or the control group (SRP + placebo). Results: A total of 59 patients were screened, 27 were included and 26 completed 3 months (M) and 21 completed 6M control. Test (n = 13) and control groups (n = 14) had similar 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels at baseline (17.6 +/- 7.4 vs. 14.4 +/- 5.2, respectively). After one month, there was a significant difference between groups (32.9 +/- 5.2 vs. 16.1 +/- 4.7), also seen at M3 and M6 (t-test, p < 0.001). Periodontal treatment was successful in both groups, since it resulted in a reduction of all measured clinical parameters at M3 and M6 (probing pocket depth (PPD), full mouth bleeding and plaque). However, the reduction in PPD was greater in the test group. Conclusions: In this short-term pilot study, no significant differences were observed between two groups. However, supplementation with VD tended to improve the treatment of periodontitis in patients with initial 25(OH) vitamin D3 < 30 ng/mL and proved safe and efficacious. NCT03162406.