The role of vitamin D in head and neck cancer
LARYNGOSCOPE INVESTIGATIVE OTOLARYNGOLOGY
Authors: Izreig, Said; Hajek, Michael; Edwards, Heather A.; Mehra, Saral; Sasaki, Clarence; Judson, Benjamin L.; Rahmati, Rahmatullah W.
Objective: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) describes a set of malignancies of the head and neck that continue to inflict considerable morbidity and mortality. Because HNSCC often presents at an advanced stage, patients frequently undergo intensive multi-modal therapy with an intent to cure. Vitamin D is a precursor to the biologically active hormone calcitriol which governs bone and calcium physiology that is obtained from diet and UV-B exposure. Vitamin D is known to have pleiotropic effects on health and disease. In this review, we examine the role of vitamin D in cancer with emphasis on HNSCC and discuss potential avenues for further research that might better elucidate the role of vitamin D in the management of HNSCC. Review methods: A review of MEDLINE database indexed literature concerning the role and biology of vitamin D in HNSCC was conducted, with special consideration of recently published work and research involving immunobiology and HNSCC. Conclusions: The available evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a role in protecting against HNSCC, particularly in persons who smoke, although conflicting and limited data exists. Promising initial work encourages the pursuit of further study. Implications for practice: The significant morbidity and mortality that HNSCC brings warrants continued research in available and safe interventions that improve patient outcomes. With the rise of immunotherapy as an effective modality for treatment, continued research of vitamin D as an adjunct in the treatment of HNSCC is supported.
Sufficient vitamin D status positively modified ventilatory function in asthmatic children following a Mediterranean diet enriched with fatty fish intervention study
Authors: Papamichael, Maria M.; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Lambert, Katrina; Katsardis, Charis; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Erbas, Bircan
Asthma in children is the most prevalent allergic disease worldwide that has become a major public health priority. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between baseline serum vitamin D status, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO) in 64 Greek children with `mild asthma' aged 5 to 12 years (51.6% male) in a dietary intervention study. We hypothesized that baseline serum vitamin D levels modify the beneficial response of fatty fish intake on pulmonary function in asthmatic children following a Mediterranean diet. The intervention group consumed 2 fatty fish meals/week (>= 150 g cooked filleted fish/meal) as part of the Mediterranean diet for six months, and the control group consumed their usual diet. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay and defined as sufficient levels of 25(OH)D =25 ng/mL. Only 36% of children were graded as sufficient in 25(OH)D levels on entry into the study with a higher proportion of girls insufficient than boys (61% vs 39% respectively). Participants with sufficient levels of serum 25(OH)D at baseline, consuming the intervention diet increased FEV1/FVC by 4.89 units (beta = 4.89; 95%CI: 1.19-8.61; p = 0.013) and FEF25-75% by 12.83 units (beta = 12.83; 95%CI: 4.27-21.40; p = 0.006) compared to controls. No significant differences in pulmonary function or FeNO were observed for those with insufficient levels of 25(OH) D in the intervention or control groups. In conclusion, sufficient serum vitamin D levels enhanced ventilatory function in response to a dietary intervention in asthmatic children. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.