Estradiol, Obesity and Hypogonadism
Authors: Starka, Luboslav; Hill, Martin; Pospisilova, Hana; Duskova, Michaela
Obesity increases the incidence of hypogonadism in men, and hypogonadism in turn plays a role in obesity. One of the first mechanisms proposed to explain this was a hypothesis based on the principle that obese men have higher estrogen levels, and that increased estrogens provide feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, reducing the secretion of gonadotropins and leading to a decrease of overall testosterone levels. This concept has since been questioned, though never completely disproven. In this study we compared hormone levels in three groups of men with differing BMI levels (between 18-25, 25-29, and 30-39), and found correlations between lowering overall testosterone, SHBG and increased BMI. At the same time, there were no significant changes to levels of free androgens, estradiol or the gonadotropins LH and FSH. These findings are in line with the idea that estrogen production in overweight and obese men with BMI up to 39 kg/m(2) does not significantly influence endocrine testicular function.
Quercetin alleviates cognitive decline in ovariectomized mice by potentially modulating histone acetylation homeostasis
JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
Authors: Aggarwal, Aanchal; Sharma, Nishtha; Khera, Alka; Sandhir, Rajat; Rishi, Vikas
The synergism between estrogen and histone tail acetylation-mediated memory formation is not clearly understood. Here, we attempt to study the altered histone acetylation homeostasis mediated changes in cognition following ovariectomy and evaluate the protective effect of quercetin. A significant reduction in estradiol levels with subsequent depletion in spatial memory and learning functions assessed by Morris water maze, novel object recognition test and elevated plus maze was observed in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Correspondingly, a significant decline in neuroplasticity markers like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) was observed in cortex and hippocampus of OVX animals. Notably, histone acetyltransferase (HAT)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) balance was significantly disrupted in cortex and hippocampus of OVX mice. Lowered extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein activation observed in OVX brain regions might account for HAT/HDAC imbalance. Altered HAT/HDAC homeostasis results in lowered histone 3 acetylation in OVX brain that suppressed transcriptional activation of neuroplasticity-related genes. Quercetin supplementation to OVX mice for 4 weeks was able to ameliorate cognitive impairment by restoring HAT/HDAC homeostasis through ERK activation and reversing alterations in neuroplasticity markers in cortex and hippocampus of OVX mice. Taken together, our results suggest that quercetin alleviates ovariectomy-induced cognitive decline by modulating histone acetylation homeostasis. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.