Trust and R&D investments: evidence from OECD countries
JOURNAL OF INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS
Authors: Ndubuisi, Gideon
This paper examines two potential mechanisms - access to credit and reduction in relational risks - through which social trust can affect R&D investments. Social trust can increase R&D investments by expanding firms' access to external finance with which they can use to fund promising R&D projects. It can also increase R&D investments by reducing relational risks that expose firms to ex-ante and ex-post holdups or expropriation risks. Using industry-level data on R&D investment intensities in 20 OECD countries, I test these mechanisms by evaluating whether more external finance dependent and relational risk vulnerable industries exhibit disproportional higher R&D investment intensities in trust intensive countries. The results indicate that external finance dependent industries and relational risks vulnerable industries experience relatively higher R&D investment intensities in trust-intensive countries. Therefore, the results underline access to external finance and reduction in relational risks as causal pathways linking social trust and R&D investments.
Swelling Behaviors of Super-Absorbent Hydrogel based Waste: Bacteria Bran
JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Authors: Yang, Fan; Ma, Jianzhong; Bao, Yan; Zhu, Qian; Zhang, Wenbo
Firstly, a newly developed bacteria brans (BB) /poly (acrylic/acrylamide/2-acrlylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (AA/AM/AMPS) hydrogel was reported, which cross-linked by N, N'-methyl-enebisacrylamide in the presence of potassium persulfate as a free radical initiator. The BB, a waste after the cultivation of the edible fungus, is composite of lignin, cellulose and other carbohydrates, which are beneficial to enhance the water absorbency properties of the super-absorbent hydrogel. Secondly, the chemical structure and morphologies of the hydrogel were characterized by ourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results confirmed that superabsorbent comprised a coarse surface and the porous network structure with carboxylate, carboxamide and sulfate. Finally, the swelling behaviors of the BB/P (AA/AM/AMPS) hydrogel have been studied, achieving favourable water absorbency properties (589 g/g). The effect of swelling behaviors of the hydrogel on the pH value and the concentration of the salt solution were also studied. This work improves the swelling behaviors of the hydrogel. Importantly, it provides the way to devise the hydrogel with environmental compatibility and low-cost, which is useful in many potential applications, such as agriculture.