Description of 22 new alpha-1 antitrypsin genetic variants
ORPHANET JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES
Authors: Renoux, Celine; Odou, Marie-Francoise; Tosato, Guillaume; Teoli, Jordan; Abbou, Norman; Lombard, Christine; Zerimech, Farid; Porchet, Nicole; Cellier, Colette Chapuis; Balduyck, Malika; Joly, Philippe
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is an autosomal co-dominant disorder caused by mutations of the highly polymorphic SERPINA1 gene. This genetic disorder still remains largely under-recognized and can be associated with lung and/or liver injury. The laboratory testing for this deficiency typically comprises serum alpha-1 antitrypsin quantification, phenotyping according to the isoelectric focusing pattern and genotyping if necessary. To date, more than 100 SERPINA1 variants have been described and new genetic variants are frequently discovered. Over the past 10 years, 22 new genetic variants of the SERPINA1 gene were identified in the daily practice of the University Medical laboratories of Lille and Lyon (France). Among these 22 variants, seven were Null alleles and one with a M1 migration pattern (M1(Cremeaux)) was considered as deficient according to the clinical and biological data and to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) criteria. Three other variants were classified as likely pathogenic, three as variants of uncertain significance while the remaining ones were assumed to be neutral. Moreover, we also identified in this study two recently described SERPINA1 deficient variants: Trento (p.Glu99Val) and S-Donosti (p.Ser38Phe). The current data, together with a recent published meta-analysis, represent the most up-to-date list of SERPINA1 variants available so far.
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin in Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Authors: Topic, Aleksandra; Ljujic, Mila; Radojkovic, Dragica
Context: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the most abundant liver-derived, highly polymorphic, glycoprotein in plasma. Hereditary deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin in plasma (A1ATD) is a consequence of accumulation of polymers of A1AT mutants in endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes and other A1AT-producing cells. One of the clinical manifestations of A1ATD is liver disease in childhood and cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in adulthood. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of liver failure in early childhood caused by A1ATD are well known, but the association with hepatocellular carcinoma is not clarified. The aim of this article is to review different aspects of association between A1AT variants and hepatocellular carcinoma, with emphasis on the epidemiology and molecular pathogenesis. The significance of A1AT as a biomarker in the diagnosis of HCC is also discussed. Evidence Acquisitions: Search for relevant articles were performed through Pub Med, HighWire, and Science Direct using the keywords "alpha-1-antitrypsin", "liver diseases", "hepatocellular carcinoma", "SERPINA1". Articles published until 2011 were reviewed. Results: Epidemiology studies revealed that severe A1ATD is a significant risk factor for cirrhosis and HCC unrelated to the presence of HBV or HCV infections. However, predisposition to HCC in moderate A1ATD is rare, and probably happens in combination with HBV and/or HCV infections or other unknown risk factors. It is assumed that accumulation of polymers of A1ATD variants in endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes leads to damage of hepatocytes by gain-of-function mechanism. Also, increased level of A1AT was recognized as diagnostic and prognostic marker of HCC. Conclusions: Clarification of a carcinogenic role for A1ATD and identification of pro-inflammatory or some still unknown factors that lead to increased susceptibility to HCC associated with A1ATD may contribute to a better understanding of hepatic carcinogenesis and to the development of new drugs. Published by Kowsar Corp, 2012. cc 3.0.