Nanostructured lipid carriers of ivermectin as a novel drug delivery system in hydatidosis
PARASITES & VECTORS
Authors: Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Godrati-Azar, Zahra; Spotin, Adel; Norouzi, Roghayeh; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Nami, Sanam; Heydarian, Peyman; Rajabi, Saba; Mohammadi, Maryam; Perez-Cordon, Gregorio
Background: The larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of hydatid disease in humans. This zoonotic parasitic infection remains a major health problem in certain areas of the world where is still endemic. In view of the ineffectiveness of some drug treatments, the surgical removal of cysts remains the preferred treatment option together with the administration of albendazole and mebendazole. However, severe side effects of these drugs have been reported which demands developing new scolicidal agents that confer suitable efficacy and fewer side effects during surgery. Methods: To that purpose, in the present work we assessed the effectiveness of ivermectin (IVM), a macrocyclic lactone endectocide that has shown to be an effective nematocidal drug against other important parasitic infections. To overcome the limitations observed in some drug formulations and resistance, we used nano lipid carriers (NLCs) as a targeted and sustained drug delivery system for IVM. We evaluated the in vitro cestocidal and apoptotic effects of NLCs-loaded IVM versus IVM by quantifying the expression of caspase-3 mRNA. Results: We found that after 60 and 120 min of administration, 800 mu g/ml and 400 mu g/ml NLCs-loaded IVM induced 100% mortality, respectively. On the other hand, the 800 mu g/ml of IVM induced 100% mortality rate 150 min after administration. Additionally, we found that NLCs-loaded IVM induced higher mRNA caspase-3 expression suggesting a more potent apoptotic effect on the parasite. Conclusions: These data suggest that NLCs-loaded IVM may be a promising alternative to current treatments although in vivo studies are needed.
Anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity of Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extracts
SAUDI JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Authors: Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Zreiq, Rafat; Hafiz, Taghreed A.; Mubaraki, Murad A.; Sulaiman, Shadi; Algahtani, Fahad; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Al-Shaebi, Esam M.; Al-Quraishy, Saleh
Due to the endless emergence of drug resistant pathogens, there is a constant need for new therapeutic agents for clinical use. The identification of active components in natural products and determining the efficacy of these active components has become the current focus of pharmacological research. The present study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities of Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extract (ILE) against the earthworm Allolobophora caliginosa, the gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus), the gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and the yeast Candida albicans. Methanolic extract of I. oblongifolia leaf was obtained and the total phenolics and flavonoids in ILE were determined. The anthelmintic study was carried out to determine the time to paralysis and time to death of worms using three doses (100, 200, and 300 mg/mL) of ILE. Also, Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of ILE. The results showed that ILE induces paralysis and death of A. caliginosa at all concentration tested faster than the reference drug, Albendazole. Additionally, ILE exhibited prominent antimicrobial activity against all gram-positive bacteria tested but almost no significant activity against the gram-negative bacteria, except K. pneumoniae. ILE showed close similarity to the spectrum of chloramphenicol and cefoxitin activities. Furthermore, C. albicans was highly susceptible to the leaf extracts. Our results showed that ILE is an effective anthelmintic and antimicrobial agent. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.