Bat Origins of MERS-CoV Supported by Bat Coronavirus HKU4 Usage of Human Receptor CD26
CELL HOST & MICROBE
Authors: Wang, Qihui; Qi, Jianxun; Yuan, Yuan; Xuan, Yifang; Han, Pengcheng; Wan, Yuhua; Ji, Wei; Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Wang, Jianwei; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Yan, Jinghua; Lu, Guangwen; Gao, George F.
The recently reported Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is phylogenetically closely related to the bat coronaviruses (BatCoVs) HKU4 and HKU5. However, the evolutionary pathway of MERS-CoV is still unclear. A receptor binding domain (RBD) in the MERS-CoV envelope-embedded spike protein specifically engages human CD26 (hCD26) to initiate viral entry. The high sequence identity in the viral spike protein prompted us to investigate if HKU4 and HKU5 can recognize hCD26 for cell entry. We found that HKU4-RBD, but not HKU5-RBD, binds to hCD26, and pseudotyped viruses embedding HKU4 spike can infect cells via hCD26 recognition. The structure of the HKU4-RBD/hCD26 complex revealed a hCD26-binding mode similar overall to that observed for MERS-RBD. HKU4-RBD, however, is less adapted to hCD26 than MERS-RBD, explaining its lower affinity for receptor binding. Our findings support a bat origin for MERS-CoV and indicate the need for surveillance of HKU4-related viruses in bats.
Coronaviral hypothetical and structural proteins were found in the intestinal surface enterocytes and pneumocytes of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Authors: Chan, WS; Wu, C; Chow, SCS; Cheung, T; To, KF; Leung, WK; Chan, PKS; Lee, KC; Ng, HK; Au, DMY; Lo, AWI
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerging infectious disease that haunted the world from November 2002 to July 2003. Little is known about the biology and pathophysiology of the novel coronavirus that causes SARS. The tissue and cellular distributions of coronaviral hypothetical and structural proteins in SARS were investigated. Antibodies against the hypothetical ( SARS 3a, 3b, 6, 7a and 9b) and structural proteins ( envelope, membrane, nucleocapsid and spike) of the coronavirus were generated from predicted antigenic epitopes of each protein. The presence of these proteins were first verified in coronavirus- infected Vero E6 tissue culture model. Immunohistochemical studies on different human tissues, including a cohort of nine autopsies, two liver biopsies and intestinal biopsies of SARS patients, further confirmed the existence of coronaviral hypothetical and structural proteins in the cytoplasm of pneumocytes and small intestinal surface enterocytes in SARS patients. With this vast array of antibodies, no signal was observed in other cell types including those organs in which reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reactions were reported to be positive. Structural proteins and the functionally undefined hypothetical proteins were expressed in coronavirus-infected cells with distinct expression pattern in different organs in SARS patients. These antipeptide antibodies can be useful for the diagnosis of SARS at the tissue level.