First molecular epidemiological study of hepatitis B and D in individuals infected with human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2 from Argentina
JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY
Authors: Pataccini, Gabriela; Andrea Berini, Carolina; Rene Pedrozo, Williams; Marcela Biglione, Mirna; Maria Delfino, Cecilia
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis D virus (HDV) share transmission routes. Argentina shows low prevalence of HTLV-1/2, HBV, and HDV infections; however, this situation may vary according to the geographic region and group studied. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV infections and detect both viral genotypes in HTLV-1/2 individuals from Argentina. A total of 202 HTLV-1/2 confirmed samples (blood donors [BD] and individuals with risk factors for HTLV-1/2 [RF]) were tested for HBsAg and total anti-HBc by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All reactive samples for some HBV markers were analyzed for HBV DNA characterization and HDV serological and molecular analysis. Total prevalence was 1.5% for HBsAg and 6.4% for anti-HBc. Prevalence was 23.1% for anti-HDV in all HBV-reactive samples. No significant difference was observed for HBV and HDV prevalence within HTLV subtypes. The population study showed that prevalence of anti-HBc was higher in the RF than in the BD population, with no significant differences between them. The HBsAg marker and anti-HDV were only found in RF, showing significant differences when compared to BD. Regarding molecular detection, one sample amplified for HBV DNA and none for HDV RNA. HBV sequence was classified as subgenotype F1b. New and updated background on serological markers of HBV and HDV infection in patients with HTLV-1/2 was provided.
A large real-world cohort study examining the effects of long-term entecavir on hepatocellular carcinoma and HBsAg seroclearance
JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS
Authors: Ko, Kwan-Lung; To, Wai-Pan; Mak, Lung-Yi; Seto, Wai-Kay; Ning, Qin; Fung, James; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man-Fung
Real-world studies examining reduction in risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients receiving antivirals are limited by the small size of the studies, or by data insufficiency and heterogeneity with short follow-up duration. We aimed to examine the real-world long-term outcome of patients receiving entecavir treatment on HCC incidence and HBsAg seroclearance. The incidence of HCC in 1225 entecavir-treated patients between 2002 and 2015 was compared with the HCC incidence estimated using the REACH-B, GAG-HCC and CU-HCC scores. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated. The impact of entecavir treatment on HBsAg seroclearance was also explored. The median follow-up of the cohort was 6.6 years, with 66 cases of HCC development. Using the REACH-B model, the reduction of HCC risk was significant from year 6 onwards with SIR of 0.68 (95% CI 0.535-0.866) at year 10. In subgroup patients without cirrhosis, consistent risk reduction was observed from the fifth year and the SIR reached 0.51 (95% CI 0.271-0.704) by year 10. Benefit in cirrhotic patients was demonstrated when using the GAG-HCC and CU-HCC score, with the SIR at year 10 being 0.38 (95% CI 0.259-0.544) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.314-0.659), respectively. The cumulative rate of HBsAg seroclearance was 5.2%. HBsAg level at third year of treatment and baseline-to-3-year percentage reduction was predictive of subsequent HBsAg seroclearance. In conclusion, long-term entecavir therapy was associated with significant reduction in the risk of HCC in the real world. However, HBsAg seroclearance rate remained low. Additional therapy may be considered in patients with adverse predictive factors for subsequent HBsAg seroclearance.