Activating transcription factor 3 regulates chemokine expression in contracting C2C12 myotubes and in mouse skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise
BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
Authors: Fernandez-Verdejo, R.; Vanwynsberghe, A. M.; Hai, T.; Deldicque, L.; Francaux, M.
Activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 regulates chemokine expression in various cell types and tissues. Herein, we studied this regulation in contracting muscle cells in vitro, and in skeletal muscle after muscle-damaging exercise in vivo. C2C12 myotubes with normal or low ATF3 levels (atf3_siRNA) were electrically stimulated (EPS). Also, ATF3-knockout (ATF3-KO) and control mice ran downhill until exhaustion, and muscles were analyzed post-exercise. EPS increased ATF3 levels in myotubes (P < 0.01). Chemokine C-C motif ligand (ccl) 2 mRNA increased post-EPS, but atf3_siRNA attenuated the response (P < 0.05). Atf3_siRNA up-regulated cd6 basal mRNA, and down-regulated ccl9 and chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (cxcl)1 basal mRNAs. Post-exercise, ATF3-KO mice showed exacerbated mRNA levels of cc16 and ccl9 in soleus (P < 0.05), and similar trends were observed for cd2 and interleukin (il) 1 beta (P < 0.09). In quadriceps, il6 mRNA level increased only in ATF3-KO (P < 0.05), and cxcl1 mRNA showed a similar trend (P = 0.082). Cluster of differentiation-68 (cd68) mRNA, a macrophage marker, increased in quadriceps and soleus independently of genotype (P < 0.001). Our data demonstrate that ATF3 regulates chemokine expression in muscle cells in vitro and skeletal muscle in vivo, but the regulation differs in each model. Cells other than myofibers may thus participate in the response observed in skeletal muscle. Our results also indicate that ATF3-independent mechanisms would regulate macrophage infiltration upon muscle damaging exercise. The implications of chemokine regulation in skeletal muscle remain to be determined. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cylindrospermopsin induces cellular stress and activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways in adult human liver stem cells
Authors: Raska, Jan; Ctverackova, Lucie; Dydowiczova, Aneta; Sovadinova, Iva; Blaha, Ludek; Babica, Pavel
Cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is an emerging freshwater contaminant, whose expanding environmental occurrence might result into increased human health risks. CYN is potent hepatotoxin, with cytotoxicity and genotoxicity documented in primary hepatocytes or hepatoma cell lines. However, there is only limited information about CYN effects on adult human liver stem cells (LSCs), which play an important role in liver tissue development, regeneration and repair. In our study with human liver cell line HL1-hT1 which expresses characteristics of LSC5, CYN was found to be cytotoxic and increasing cell death after 24-48 h exposure to concentrations >1 mu M. Subcytotoxic 1 mu M concentration did not induce cell death or membrane damage, but inhibited cellular processes related to energy production, leading to a growth stagnation after >72 h. Interestingly, these effects were not associated with increased DNA damage, reactive oxygen species production, or endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, CYN induced a sustained (24-48 h) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38, and increased expression of stress-related transcription factor ATF3. Thus, LSC5 were not primarily affected by CYN-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress, but via activation of signaling and transcriptional pathways critical for regulation of cell proliferation, stress responses, cell survival and inflammation. Alterations of LSCs during CYN-induced liver injury, including the role of nongenotoxic mechanisms, should be therefore considered in mechanistic assessments of chronic CYN hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenicity. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.