The role of mitochondrial DNA damage at skeletal muscle oxidative stress on the development of type 2 diabetes
MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY
Authors: dos Santos, Julia Matzenbacher; de Oliveira, Denise Silva; Moreli, Marcos Lazaro; Benite-Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida
Reduced cellular response to insulin in skeletal muscle is one of the major components of the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mitochondrial dysfunction involves in the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to verify the involvement of mitochondrial DNA damage at ROS generation in skeletal muscle during development of T2D. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 60% fat over 8 weeks and at day 14 a single injection of STZ (25 mg/kg) was administered (T2D-induced). Control rats received standard food and an injection of citrate buffer. Blood and soleus muscle were collected. Abdominal fat was quantified as well as glucose, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in plasma and mtDNA copy number, cytochrome b (cytb) mRNA, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and 8-isoprostane (a marker of ROS) in soleus muscle. T2D-induced animal presented similar characteristics to humans that develop T2D such as changes in blood glucose, abdominal fat, LDL, HDL and cholesterol total. In soleus muscle 8-isoprostane, mtDNA copy number and 8-hydroxyguanosine were increased, while cytb mRNA was decreased in T2D. Our results suggest that in the development of T2D, when risks factors of T2D are present, intracellular oxidative stress increases in skeletal muscle and is associated with a decrease in cytb transcription. To overcome this process mtDNA increased but due to the proximity of ROS generation, mtDNA remains damaged by oxidation leading to an increase in ROS in a vicious cycle accounting to the development of insulin resistance and further T2D.
The mechanism of RNA oxidation involved in the development of heart failure
FREE RADICAL RESEARCH
Authors: Liu, Tong; Cai, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Li-Qun; Sun, Ning; Cui, Ju; Wang, Hua; Yang, Jie-Fu
Heart failure (HF) has become a global public health problem due to its unclear pathogenesis. Our previous studies have found that RNA oxidation is associated with the occurrence and development of a variety of chronic diseases in the elderly, but whether RNA oxidation is related to the pathogenesis of HF remains unclear. Male Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DSSR) were divided into 8% NaCl groups and 0.3% NaCl groups. The blood pressure of DSSR, HE staining of cardiac tissue, cardiac function index of colour Doppler echocardiography and plasma N-terminal probrain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProBNP) were used to evaluate the model making. The levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoGsn) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-oxodGsn) in myocardium and urine of DSSR were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The expression of ERK-MAPK pathway and MTH1 was detected by Western blot (WB). Rats in the 8% NaCl group developed heart failure symptoms such as increased blood pressure, myocardial hypertrophy, decreased diastolic function, and increased plasma NT-ProBNP. The content of 8-oxoGsn in urine and heart tissue also increased, which was positively correlated with the related indicators of heart failure. This process is also accompanied by the sequential activation of ERK-MAPK pathway molecules and the increase of MTH1. The mechanism of RNA oxidation and inhibition is related to the occurrence and development of HF, which may be involved through ERK-MAPK pathway.