Antibody

Diagnostics

Antibody, also called Immunoglobulin, is a large Y globulin secreted by Effector B cell which is used in identifying and neutralizing the outsiders like bacterial and virus. Antibody is only found in blood ,body fluid and cytomembrane’s surface of Vertebrate. In addition, antiboy can identify one characteristics of specific outsiders. The specific outsider is antigen. Antibody is a symmetrical structure containing four Polypeptide chains. Two of these chains are heavy chains which are longer and contain bigger relative moleculars and the others are shorter light chains containing smaller relative mileculars.

Antibody’s main funcion is to bind with antigens including the outside and the inside to eliminate the microorganism and oarasite which intrude the host’s body. Antibody is also a protein produced by reaction of antigen and binding with specificity of antigen. Thus every kinds of antibody can bind with Epitope of specific antigen. These binds can inactivat antigens but it doesn’t work and even cause the Pathological damage of the host somtimes.

Antibody always has its law. The following is the reaction process:

Initial reaction to produce antibodies: when antibody enter the host, it will produce antibody after an incubation period. It produce a little antibody and antibody last a short time.
The reaction to produce antibodies again: When same antigen enter the host again, some elements of old antibody of host will bind with the new antibody at first. Then, antibody titers increase rapidly and it will grow more than several and even dozens of times than the antibody in first entry. In addition, it will be kept in a long period.
Recalls the reaction to produce antibodies: because the antibody sitmulated by antigen will appear after a period. It will increase rapidly again if it bind with disappeared antibody. If the second antigen stimulating host is same as the first one, it can be called Specific recall response and if it is different from the first one, it called Non-specific recall response. Antibody’s growth produced by non-specific recall response is temporary and it will drop in rapid speed.

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