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Calorimetry Service

Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC)
ITC is a powerful analytical tool which measures the binding affinity and thermodynamics between any two biomolecules. Binding constants in the range of 103 to 108 M-1 can be accurately measured.
ITC is considered the "gold standard" assay for binding, and has many advantages: 

• Universal assay - directly measures heat change associated with binding
• Label-free - uses native materials
• True in-solution technique
• Requires minimal assay development
• Has no molecular weight limitations
• Non-optical
• Versatile, can be used with any biomolecule - proteins, nucleic acids, small molecule drugs, lipids, etc. Can be used with a wide range of biological buffers, ionic strengths, pH's In a single ITC experiment, one can determine: 
• Binding affinity - Kd

• Directly measure sub-millimolar to nanomolar
• Can extend affinity range to picomolar using competitive ITC method

• Number of binding sites
• Multiple and different binding sites
• Enthalpy and entropy of binding

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
DSC continuously measures heat capacity of a system as a function of temperature allowing for simultaneous determination of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy for a thermal transition. This information has proven to be extremely important in the characterization of protein folding and oligonucleotide conformation. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a powerful analytical tool which directly measures the change in heat associated with the unfolding of a protein, lipid, or nucleic acid. In DSC, as the biomolecule is heated at a constant rate, a detectable heat change associated with thermal denaturation can be accurately measured. DSC experiments are:

• Label-free and use native materials
• True in-solution technique
• Easy to perform-require minimal assay development
• Conducted using a wide range of biological buffers, ionic strengths and pH's
• Universal assay-measures the heat change associated with denaturation
• Non-optical-unaffected by colored or turbid samples
• Versatile-can be used with proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and other biomolecules

In a single DSC experiment, one can determine:

• Transition midpoint (Tm)
• Enthalpy and heat capacity change associated with unfolding

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